Classification of Government

Classification of Government

Classification of Government

Government is an important element of the state. The exercise of power by the state is mainly executed by the entity of government. The government is different in different countries. The classification of governments is very important. It helps in comparing institutions in different circumstances. Such an exercise helps in identifying common and distinctive element of different forms of government. Comparison aims at understanding the rationale behind institutions, which in turn helps in better understanding of its functions and the philosophy or the idea behind it. A comparison of the executive institution in Britain and U. S. A. for example, tells us about the rationale, their powers and functions.

Comparison between governmental forms helps us to understand the basis of their power. This in turn helps in understanding their powers and functions as also their relation with other institutions of government. It helps us in understanding the similarities and dis-similarities between governments and their working. In either case, the explanations may take into account various factors, e.g., historical conditions for the emergence of a governmental form, the socioeconomic conditions in the society, the linkages with other countries, and so on. Thus, a discussion on the forms of government is not limited to their classification only in terms of constitutional institutions, it also includes the different ways in which the institutions actually work.

Problems of Classification

Any attempt at classification involves working out categories into which governments and their institutions in different countries are listed. There are two ways of doing this. We can take into account the objectives of the state and the government and arrive at broad categories that seem reasonable. The second method is to analyse the existing government, and then see what are the broad categories that emerge from the actual distribution of power and its use. Aristotle’s well-known scheme of classification, where he arrived at three main forms of government on the basis of an analysis of the working of more than 150 constitutions, is a good example of this exercise. Many recent studies in the field of comparative politics have made similar efforts.

When one set of characteristics is selected for classification in preference to some others, the question of bias may arise. Why these categories, and not the others? Such preferences may have their roots in some cultural or ideological bias of the scholar or of the theoretical approach.

Another difficulty of classification is that the terms used have different meanings in different contexts. Institutions may gather different meanings. President of U.S.A., France and India are quite different institutions, though the term that has been used is the same. Bureaucracies in Great Britain and in India are quite different in terms of their powers and functions. Same is true of other terms like the Parliament, the Prime Minister, the Judiciary, and so on. The constitution may provide for an institution based on certain principles and with some expectations. But in their actual working, institutions may take a different shape. There may be difference between theory and practice. No scheme of classification is, therefore, final and static. After the initial classification it always becomes necessary to go into the details of the working of each type of government. There are different levels of such classification of government.

Democracy, A Short Note

Democracy

Democracy

Democracy today is not just another form of government, it is by far the most preferred form. Most of the countries were able to achieve the ideals of democracy only in the 20th century; Universal Adult Franchise was introduced in Germany in 1919, in Sweden in 1920, in France in 1945, and in Britain in 1948. The female population in Switzerland got their right to vote in 1971. Commitment to democratic ideals in the Third World countries like India, took roots during the freedom movement and the institutional framework reflected the ideals of democracy only after she became independent. The word €democracy’ is derived from two Greek terms, demos and kratia. These two words together mean €authority of the people’. Different aspects of democracy were influenced by the British experience, the French Revolution, the American Revolution and the October Revolution. The British constitutional history emphasized individual freedom and a government that is controlled by the people. Equality constituted one of the ideals (along with liberty and fraternity) of the French Revolution. The American Revolution added the concept of meaningful representation.

Democracy refers to the ideals mentioned above. It also includes the elaboration of procedures that ensures the achievement of the ideals.
More than a form of government, democracy is associated with a way of life. It includes an ideal social system, aimed at general social welfare through the fullest development of human personality. It is possible only when the individual enjoys complete and equal freedom of action and freedom from unnecessary constraints. The democratic form of government helps create such conditions.

Democratic theory is based on three basic ideals: individual rights, liberty and equality. Democracy as a form of government ensures these three principles. Individual as the basic unit and the organisation of democracy emphasize those ideals. Individual rights and liberty are regarded most important. Emphasis on equality advocates basic equality of individuals. Distinctions of any kind, e.g., on the basis of age, race, education, or gender, etc., are against the ideal of democracy. In order to ensure individual rights and liberty on the basis of equality, it upholds the principle of universal participation of people in the affairs of the government.

The most direct form of popular participation is adult franchise through which the government is constituted and representatives are elected. Participation should however, does not stop here. It should extend to participation in the decision-making processes. The organisation of the government, as well as its functioning, is subject to supervision and control by the people. While the governmental authority is recognized, individual rights and liberty are of paramount importance.

Non-democratic government is not based on the participation of the people. Institutions of non-democratic government are also not accountable to the people for their actions. Terms that are often used to describe nondemocratic governments are authoritarian, dictatorship and totalitarian. The characteristic, which is common to all these terms is absence of popular control on the use or abuse of power.

The Process of Filing Finance Visa

Fiancee Visa

Fiancee Visa

Fiancee Visa/ Finance Visa is a visa which helps the citizens of USA to get a visa for their spouses and marry in the province of United States of America. This is basically designed to work for the citizens of United States of America to give an opportunity to their spouses to visit their place before they actually tie the knot. Finace Visa is a wonderful and easy way to get the Visa.

Fiancee visa requires a set of documentations which is slightly difficult and complex in nature. It is always suggested to get the advice of some experts to help in the documentation process in way so that the visa application is not returned back or rejected. Further, the entire documentation process requires about a thousand dollars for filing and approval of the documents. This is a vital part in getting the visa process for the Fiancee. Fiancee Visa is little different from the Marriage Visa in the way that the visa requires 4-6 month process while the Marriage Visa requires about 9-10 months. Further, for the Fiancee Visa meeting the person once is the only eligibility criteria while for the Marriage Visa it is imperative to have met the person and have the legal documents.

The process for getting a Fiancee Visa is as follows. One needs to file a petition for Fiance Visa with the Department of Homeland Security with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services in the area that one is residing. One receives a package which contains a bunch of forms and certain information which collectively makes up the Fiancee petition. The forms needs to be filled up in all aspects with all the required supporting documents. Care should to be taken to fill the forms correctly so that the form is not rejected or returned back. One more thing to keep in mind is the dact aht the petition for Fiancee Visa cannot be filled at embassy, consulate or the United States Immigration abroad. The process then continues. The council approves the petition and sends it to National Visa Centre for processing for their approval. After this the Fiancee gets to be interviewed in person by the officials for getting the final approval. The documents are then reviewed and the entire process takes about 4- 6 months of time. Now this is changing job but once the Visa is received the process becomes easier. Further, there is even a clause that the children can accompany the spouse with special permission. Once the visa is received, the spouses can accompany and marry nicely in the dream state of United States of America.

Wills and Probate Solicitors in London

Probate Solicitors

Probate Solicitors

Dealing with the properties of a deceased person can be extremely difficult as well as traumatic. If you are a close relative of the deceased person or just an executor, wills and probate solicitors in London can guide you through the process and can help you with their valuable advice that you should need to solve the matter effectively. Most of the probate firms’ offer wills and probate help that you might need. The probate procedure deals with money, as throughout this process, the deceased person’s estates and properties are distributed among his family members. This process can turn into an extremely prolonged and intricate process if the deceased has left a will.

The time of bereavement makes the probate process even more difficult. But as per the probate solicitors, it is better to start with the probate process as soon as possible. Probate period becomes even more difficult when individuals have to deal with an unexpected death.

After an individual has died, the deceased person leaves several concerns which need to be sorted out before the probate process starts. Wills and probate solicitors in London is able to sort out all the complications related to the property. Even the probate specialists can help in selling of the residence of the deceased person at the correct market value, if the necessity be.

There are several probate cases where, close families do not exist and there is no existence of a will, in such a case the closest person to the deceased is some friends or a distant relative. In such a condition, probate advice by the wills and probate solicitors in London is extremely needed. In such a case like this, probate bureau helps to work out where the properties and estate finds needs to end up. No matter in what kind of crisis you are in, taking advice from the probate specialist solicitors in lieu of a stipulated fee can help you in the long run. There are numerous probate solicitors’ firm where you can end up getting the solution of your probate problems.

Depending on the situation, the probate process may vary. It could be a prolonged process or it can also be a cakewalk. There are several cases throughout the world, where people without lack of probate advice often end up in property fights and issues. Hence, solving your probate issues is really necessary which would make sure that you do not end up in any nasty fights. Getting probate advice form the experts in lieu of a fee can make things easy and smooth.

Power Grid Shutdown

Government drill

Government drill

Major agencies have issued warnings to the general public advising us to stock up on necessities and reminding us that our basic way of life will be drastically affected when a strike like this occurs. Hurricane Sandy was a great example of this when gas tanks were unable to pump gas, light switches refused to turn on the lights and home heating systems failed to keep families warm.

Since the Government likes to keep us safe, they are coincidentally preparing a massive drill emulating an attack on the power grid.

Off The Grid News reports the drill will take place November 13-14:

An electrical grid joint drill simulation is being planned in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Thousands of utility workers, FBI agents, anti-terrorism experts, governmental agencies, and more than 150 private businesses are involved in the November power grid drill.

The downed power grid simulation will reportedly focus on both physical and cyber attacks. The antiquated electrical system in the United States has been one of the most neglected pieces of integral infrastructure.

The disaster drill is being described as a crisis practice unlike anything the real power grid has ever experienced. The GridEX II drill Nov. 13-14 will focus primarily on how governments will react if the electrical grid fails and, for instance, the food supply chain collapses.

Power Companies Hate This Weird Trick That Not Only Beats The Electricity Monopoly For Good, But Also To Make Sure You Always Have Free Energy No Matter How Long The Power Grid Stays Down For

American utility companies are responsible for running approximately 5,800 power plants and about 450,000 high-voltage transmission lines, controlled by various devices which have been put into place over the past decades. Some of the utility companies which oversee the power grid reportedly use antique computer protocols which are probably safe from cyber hackers, The New York Times reported.

The Times said experts call the power grid the nation’s glass jaw. Even the military gets 99 percent of its power the same way everyday citizens get it – from commercially run companies.

If an adversary lands a knockout blow, [experts] fear, it could black out vast areas of the continent for weeks; interrupt supplies of water, gasoline, diesel fuel and fresh food; shut down communications; and create disruptions of a scale that was only hinted at by Hurricane Sandy and the attacks of Sept. 11, The Times said.

I don’t know about you but a Government drill or exercise always makes me wonder about the ability to pull off a false flag attack, similar to the way 9/11 was orchestrated. A Government attack like this is definitely not out of the question and I wouldn’t put it past them. My only advice would be to prepare by stocking up on basic necessities that will enable your survival in this desperate time.